Image: Germany: The Thirty Years' War (1619-1629)

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Germany: The Thirty Years' War,1619-1629. Campaigns in Bohemia, the Palatinate, Lower Saxony & Denmark
The Thirty Years' War - First Phase
"The resolution of the French wars and the death of Philip II in 1598 marked the end of a political cycle. The Netherlands continued to struggle under the leadership of William’s son, Maurice of Nassau (1567–1625), until a ten years’ truce was concluded in 1608, but it was a truce, not a treaty. Though Spain was financially exhausted, it still refused to recognize the Dutch state. War was expected to break out again when the truce expired in 1618. The war, when it came, was much more than a resumption of the Dutch Revolt. It involved all of the European states and turned central Europe into a battleground from 1618 to 1648.
"The first phase of the Thirty Years’ War began with a struggle for the crown of Bohemia. In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg had established the principle cuius regio, eius religio; that is, princes within the empire had the right to determine the religious beliefs of their subjects. Calvinists, however, were excluded from its provisions, and issues regarding the disposition of church properties and the conversion of bishops were left in dispute. Since then, two electoral principalities, the Palatinate and Brandenburg, had turned Calvinist, and several bishops had converted to Protestantism while retaining possession of their endowed lands. Violent quarrels arose over these issues and by 1610 the empire was divided into two armed camps: the Protestant Union and the Catholic League. The Bohemian controversy arose because Matthias, king of Bohemia in 1618, was also Holy Roman emperor, a Catholic Hapsburg, and uncle of the future emperor Ferdinand II of Austria (1578–1637). Matthias was determined to preserve Bohemia for the faith and for his family, and in 1617 he secured the election of Ferdinand as his successor to the throne of Bohemia. This election was opposed by many of the Bohemian gentry and lesser nobility. ... (read more)
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Added: 5 years ago.
Topic: Europe 1619-1648: Thirty Years' War



Displaying 1 comment:

Fidel Carter wrote 8 months ago.
The Publishing of the Bible in 1611 Lead to so many
questions about the validity of the catholic belief as it
stood. These questions remain unanswered.

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